It appears to be the case… but…

According to Aristotle, it behooves us to begin philosophizing by laying out the phainomena, the appearances, or, more fully, the things appearing to be the case, and then also collecting the endoxa, the credible opinions handed down regarding matters we find puzzling. As a typical example, in a passage of his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle confronts a puzzle of human conduct, the fact that we are apparently sometimes akratic or weak-willed. When introducing this puzzle, Aristotle pauses to reflect upon a precept governing his approach to philosophy:

As in other cases, we must set out the appearances (phainomena) and run through all the puzzles regarding them. In this way we must prove the credible opinions (endoxa) about these sorts of experiences—ideally, all the credible opinions, but if not all, then most of them, those which are the most important. For if the objections are answered and the credible opinions remain, we shall have an adequate proof. (EN 1145b2–7)

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy



Lee called the meeting “probably the worst briefing I’ve seen, at least on a military issues, in the nine years I’ve served in the United States Senate,” 


Senator Mike Lee has an Opinion, an Endoxa… about the Iran Intel briefing. Aristotle called the experience; an appearance or phainomena; and according to Aristotle we should gather all the opinions, the endoxa and answer all the objections about the opinions, and when the objections are answered, the credible opinions remain and an adequate proof about the appearance, the experience.

Ron Paul agrees with Mike Lee but Lindsey Graham and Marco Rubio praised the intel.

National Review

So what are the OBJECTIONS to each opinion? Puzzle through the objections and we will have an adequate proof of one or the other.

Trump today in his televised speech said the following:

“And they (Iran) were given $150 billion, not to mention $1.8 billion in cash. Instead of saying ‘thank you’ to the United States, they chanted ‘Death to America.’”

Trump went further to claim: “The missiles fired last night at us and our allies were paid for with the funds made available by the last administration.”

Trump has cited both figures in the past to make the case that the Obama administration gave Iran a gift of billions of dollars. That picture is misleading.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s