AN academic movement of civil-rights scholars and activists in the United States who seek to critically examine the law as it intersects with issues of race and to challenge mainstream liberalapproaches to racial justice.[1] Critical race theory examines social, cultural and legal issues as they relate to race and racism.



Mark Twain is one of my favorite writers.  I was looking recently for a Twain quote about getting up early in the morning.  My search returned few quotes but did return an essay about getting up early.  

Early Rising, As Regards Excursions to the Cliff House

Early to bed, and early to rise, 

Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise 

– Benjamin Franklin.

I don’t see it. 

– George Washington

So up early as I usually do, I read the essay.  Only 2,600 words.  The beginning was a preface about getting up early.  And the story was about a ride at 4am in the morning to the Cliff House.  Mark Twain’s conclusion about rising early to ride to the Cliff House?  Better to wait until after 7am to enjoy the trip.

It is evident that Mark Twain has written about many subjects.  A few weeks ago when searching for a Mark Twain quote about slavery, I discovered that Twain was Riverboat Pilot as a very young man.  I wasn’t surprised learning this because of Twain’s writings about the Mississippi River.  I was in my youth a quartermaster in training on a dredge boat at the mouth of the Mississippi River at the Gulf of Mexico.

Mark Twain born in 1835 was a product of the years of slavery.  Wanting a Twain quote on slavery I did a search.  And discovered something I didn’t know about Twain.  He grew up in a slave holding family in Missouri and when the Civil War started and river traffic on the Mississippi came to a halt and he lost his piloting job, he joined a Confederate militia in Missouri.  After two weeks he deserted and headed west.

Dr. Joe B. Fulton, an award-winning professor of English at Baylor University, suggest in his book, The Reconstruction of Mark Twain: How a Confederate Bushwhacker Became the Lincoln of Our Literature, that Samuel Clemens  was a “Southern sympathizer then and comfortable with that word”.  According to Fulton, “in a 1901 speech celebrating the anniversary of Lincoln’s birth, although he said he did not regret the result of the war, ‘We believed in those days we were fighting for the right — and it was a noble fight, for we were fighting for our sweethearts, our homes, and our lives’”.

About Slavery the quote:  No animal inflicts it but Man and the Ant; no animal endures it with contentment and transmits it to his posterity without shame but Man alone.

– “Letters from a Dog to Another Dog Explaining and Accounting for Man”

And yesterday, in need of a quote about cats, I went to Mark Twain for a quote.  Who knew that Twain was a cat fanatic.  Up to 19 cats lived with Twain at one time.  When Twain was away from home and couldn’t take his cats along, he would sometimes rent cats to be his companion.

The quote: I simply can’t resist a cat, particularly a purring one. They are the cleanest, cunningest, and most intelligent things I know, outside of the girl you love, of course.

– quoted in Abroad with Mark Twain and Eugene Field, Fisher

All things considered, a man is as good as a dog.